6.1 Processi e job
A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier). To see information about your processes, with their associated PID and status, type
A process may be in the foreground, in the background, or be suspended. In general the shell does not return the UNIX prompt until the current process has finished executing. Some processes take a long time to run and hold up the terminal. Backgrounding a long process has the effect that the UNIX prompt is returned immediately, and other tasks can be carried out while the original process continues executing.
To background a process, type an & at the end of the command line. For example, the command sleep waits a given number of seconds before continuing. Type
This will wait 10 seconds before returning the command prompt %. Until the command prompt is returned, you can do nothing except wait.
To run sleep in the background, type
sleep 10 &
The & runs the job in the background and returns the prompt straight away, allowing you do run other programs while waiting for that one to finish.
The first line in the above example is typed in by the user; the next line, indicating job number and PID, is returned by the machine. The user is be notified of a job number (numbered from 1) enclosed in square brackets, together with a PID and is notified when a background process is finished. Backgrounding is useful for jobs which will take a long time to complete.
At the prompt, type
You can suspend the process running in the foreground by typing ^Z, i.e.hold down the [Ctrl] key and type [z]. Then to put it in the background, type
Note: do not background programs that require user interaction e.g. vi
When a process is running, backgrounded or suspended, it will be entered onto a list along with a job number. To examine this list, type
An example of a job list could be
- Suspended sleep 1000
- Running netscape
- Running matlab
To restart (foreground) a suspended processes, type
For example, to restart sleep 1000, type
Typing fg with no job number foregrounds the last suspended process.
It is sometimes necessary to kill a process (for example, when an executing program is in an infinite loop)
To kill a job running in the foreground, type ^C (control c). For example, run
To kill a suspended or background process, type
For example, run
sleep 100 & jobs
If it is job number 4, type
To check whether this has worked, examine the job list again to see if the process has been removed.
Alternatively, processes can be killed by finding their process numbers (PIDs) and using kill PID_number
sleep 1000 & ps
PID TT S TIME COMMAND
20077 pts/5 S 0:05 sleep 1000
21563 pts/5 T 0:00 firefox
To kill off the process sleep 1000, type
and then type ps again to see if it has been removed from the list. If a process refuses to be killed, uses the -9 option, i.e. type
kill -9 20077
Note: It is not possible to kill off other users’ processes !!!
comando & run command in background ^C kill the job running in the foreground ^Z suspend the job running in the foreground bg background the suspended job jobs list current jobs fg %1 foreground job number 1 kill %1 kill job number 1 ps list current processes kill 26152 kill process number 26152